Serverless Framework Docs

#Cloudflare Workers - Introduction

The Serverless Framework helps you develop and deploy serverless applications using Cloudflare Workers. It's a CLI that offers structure, automation, and best practices out-of-the-box, allowing you to focus on building sophisticated, event-driven, serverless architectures, comprised of Functions and Events. One config file directs where exactly this Worker will live, so you can modify code and have it re-built and re-deployed in moments. No visits to the browser required.

The Serverless Framework is different than other application frameworks because:

  • It manages your code as well as your infrastructure
  • It supports multiple languages

#Serverless.yml

The serverless.yml file is what molds the Worker(s) of your project. Using the Serverless Cloudflare Workers plugin, a serverless.yml will look like:

# serverless.yml
service:
  name: hello
  webpack: true | PATH_TO_CONFIG
  config:
    accountId: ${env:CLOUDFLARE_ACCOUNT_ID}
    zoneId: ${env:CLOUDFLARE_ZONE_ID}

provider:
  name: cloudflare

plugins:
  - serverless-cloudflare-workers

functions: ..

#Services

A Service is the Serverless Framework's unit of organization. You can think of it as a project file, though you can have multiple services for a single application. It's where you define your Functions and the routes they will live on, all in one file entitled serverless.yml:

# serverless.yml
service:
  name: hello
  config:
    accountId: ${env:CLOUDFLARE_ACCOUNT_ID}
    zoneId: ${env:CLOUDFLARE_ZONE_ID}

provider:
  name: cloudflare

plugins:
  - serverless-cloudflare-workers

functions: ..

name: the project name which will prefix the function and script names that will show on Cloudflare as script name.

config:

  • accountId: the account that owns the zone that you wish to deploy Workers too. Note: this may not be the account ID you are signed in as, but will be the account ID you see in the URL once you've selected the zone

  • zoneId: the zone desired to deploy Workers to

    To find your zoneId and accountId, please see API documentation on resource IDs

#Provider

A Provider tells the serverless frame what cloud provider you are using, in this case Cloudflare.

provider:
  name: cloudflare
  stage: prod
  environment:
     SOME_KEY: some_info

stage: meant to be the stage of your project (dev, prod..). Will be used in the name of the scripts on deployed to Cloudflare. If unset defaults to dev.

environment: variables that can be referenced in your throughout your worker scripts. These will get added to every function. If a function defines the same variable, the function defintion will overwrite the provider block definition.

name: the name of the cloud provider, in this case cloudflare

#Functions

A Function is a Cloudflare Worker - a single script including its bindings, routes and other config. It's an independent unit of deployment, like a microservice. It's merely code, deployed on Cloudflare’s 155+ PoPs points of presence, that is most often written to perform a single job as a Worker script.

serverless.yml:

functions:
  bar:
    name: scriptName
    script: filename
    webpack: true
    environment:
      some_key: <some_value>
    resources: ...
    events: ...

name: overwrite the default name generated (e.g. replaces hello-foo-bar) for the Worker script name

script: the path to the script from the current directory omitting the extension .js

webpack(optional): specifies what webpack operation to perform on this individual Worker script. See webpack

environment(optional) : any environment variables set as a global inside the script. See more in Environment

resources(optional) : see Resources below

events(optional) : Any routing for a Worker is configured here. See Events below

#Webpack

Webpack allows you to easily use multiple files or libraries and not worry about a complicated build pipeline.

For example in your script you can now use import:

import hello from './includeMe';
addEventListener('fetch', event => {
  event.respondWith(hello(event.request))
});

If your handler script looks like the above, the includeMe script will be packed into the final script on deployment. Learn more about how webpack works in the documentation.

To get this working in your worker project, simply add webpack: true | <config path> under the functions that you wish to bundle. Webpack will run on these functions, bundle the resulting file to /dist, and deploy the bundled file in /dist.

It can accept a boolean or a string. Possible behaviors:

  • boolean: will automatically bundle the function if set to "true" with the default webpack config. If false or omitted no bundling will occur.
  • string: a function level webpack configuration in addition to a global webpack configuration. This helps you to process bundling different for an individual function than the global webpack config. Note the extension .js will be ignored. (e.g. webpack.config)
#Environment

While Cloudflare Workers doesn't exactly offer environment variables, we can bind global variables to values, essentially giving the same capabilities. In your function configuration, add key value pairs in environment

functions:
  myFunction:
    environment:
      MYKEY: value_of_my_key
      ANOTHER_KEY_OF_MINE: sweet_child_o_mine
  myOtherFunc:
    name: ${env:ANOTHER_KEY_OF_MINE}

Then in your script, you can reference MYKEY to access the value. Within the serverless.yml, you can reference the variables as well ${env: key.

To add a variable to every function use provider.

#Events

Anything that triggers a Cloudflare Worker to execute is regarded by the Framework as an Event.

    events:
        - http:
          url: example.com/hello/user* #serverless invoke -f? fun1
          method: GET

Each event implements two behaviors:

serverless deploy will parse out all the url(s) from the events in a function and deploy routes all pointing to that specific script. The routes may contain wildcards *. You cannot have multiple routes that are identical. The routes must be paths for the the zone specified by CLOUDFLARE_ZONE_ID.

serverless invoke <functionname> will deploy your worker and run the HTTP request(s) specified by the url and method against this deployed worker. This is useful for defining specific hooks into your application for testing. To truly test your worker, you can run cURL against your domain since the Worker will be deployed.

#name

On Cloudflare, every script will have a script-name. The plugin generates a name for you using the service.name provider.stage and function to compose a name service-stage-foo.

###Plugins

You can overwrite or extend the functionality of the Framework using Plugins. Every serverless.yml can contain a plugins: property, which features multiple plugins.

# serverless.yml
plugins:
  - serverless-cloudflare-workers
  - serverless-another-plugin

You can add our serverless-cloudflare-workers plugin to your project by running npm install --save serverless-cloudflare-workers.

  • workers.dev domains are not currently supported using Serverless, but you can track our progress on this Github issue.

Have questions?

Head over to the forums to search for your questions and issues or post a new one.